American Association for Cancer Research
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supplemental table s1,s2 and s3 from Epstein–Barr Virus-Induced VEGF and GM-CSF Drive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Metastasis via Recruitment and Activation of Macrophages

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-31, 00:47 authored by Di Huang, Shi-Jian Song, Zi-Zhao Wu, Wei Wu, Xiu-Ying Cui, Jia-Ning Chen, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Shi-Cheng Su

Supplemental Table S1. Baseline characteristics of NPC patients of training and validation cohort. Supplemental Table S2. Predicted cutoff for the number of CD68 or CCL18 CD68 cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma of training cohort analysed by X-tile. Supplemental Table S3. Correlation of CCL18 Expressing TAM Counts with Clinicopathological Status in training cohort (321 Cases) and validation cohort (259 cases) of Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Natural Science Foundation of China

National Key Research and Development Program of China

Science Foundation of Guangdong Province

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation

Guangzhou Science and Technology

Translational medicine public platform of Guangdong Province

Scientific and Technical Innovative Youth Talents of Guangdong

Guangdong Department of Science & Technology Translational Medicine Center

Sun Yat-sen University



Chronic inflammation induced by persistent microbial infection plays an essential role in tumor progression. Although it is well documented that Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), how EBV-induced inflammation promotes NPC progression remains largely unknown. Here, we report that tumor infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and expression of CCL18, the cytokine preferentially secreted by TAM, closely correlate with serum EBV infection titers and tumor progression in two cohorts of NPC patients. In vitro, compared with EBV− NPC cell lines, EBV+ NPC cell lines exhibited superior capacity to attract monocytes and skew them to differentiate to a TAM-like phenotype. Cytokine profiling analysis revealed that NPC cells with active EBV replications recruited monocytes by VEGF and induced TAM by GM-CSF in an NF-κB–dependent manner. Reciprocally, TAM induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition and furthered NF-κB activation of tumor cells by CCL18. In humanized mice, NPC cells with active EBV replications exhibited increased metastasis, and neutralization of CCL18, GM-CSF, and VEGF significantly reduced metastasis. Collectively, our work defines a feed-forward loop between tumor cells and macrophages in NPC, which shows how metastatic potential can evolve concurrently with virus-induced chronic inflammation. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3591–604. ©2017 AACR.