ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Humanized mouse models using NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rγnull (NOG) and NOD/LtSz-scid IL2rγnull (NSG) mouse are associated with several limitations, such as long incubation time for stem cell engraftment and the development of xenograft versus host disease in mice injected with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To solve problems, we used humanized major histocompatibility class I- and class II-deficient NOG mice (referred to as NOG-dKO) to evaluate the antitumor effect of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody.Experimental Design: Humanized NOG-dKO mice, in which human PBMCs and human lymphoma cell line SCC-3, or glioblastoma cell line U87 were transplanted, were used as an immunotherapy model to investigate the effect of anti-PD-1 antibody. A biosimilar anti-PD-1 mAb generated in our laboratory was administered to humanized NOG-dKO mice transplanted with tumors.Results: Within 4 weeks after transplantation, human CD45+ cells in antibody-treated mice constituted approximately 70% of spleen cells. The injection of anti-PD-1 antibody reduced by more 50% the size of SCC-3 and U87 tumors. In addition, induction of CTLs against SCC-3 cells and upregulation of natural killer cell activity was observed in the antibody-treated group. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte profiling showed that more exhausted marker (PD1+TIM3+LAG3+) positive T cells maintained in anti-PD-1 antibody–treated tumor. A greater number of CD8+ and granzyme-producing T cells infiltrated the tumor in mice treated with the anti-PD-1 antibody.Conclusions: These results suggest that NOG-dKO mice might serve as a good humanized immunotherapy model to evaluate the efficacy of anti-PD-1 antibody prior to the clinical treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 149–58. ©2016 AACR.