American Association for Cancer Research
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Table S6 from The FKBP51s Splice Isoform Predicts Unfavorable Prognosis in Patients with Glioblastoma

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posted on 2024-05-16, 14:20 authored by Carolina Giordano, Laura Marrone, Simona Romano, Giuseppe Maria Della Pepa, Carlo Maria Donzelli, Martina Tufano, Mario Capasso, Vito Alessandro Lasorsa, Cristina Quintavalle, Giulia Guerri, Matia Martucci, Annamaria Auricchio, Marco Gessi, Evis Sala, Alessandro Olivi, Maria Fiammetta Romano, Simona Gaudino

Necrosis score and immunophenotyping values: Pearson r coefficient and p values are indicated for each variable. Linear correlation of necrosis score with tumor PDL-1 expression and PDL-1/FKBP51s PB-TAMs.

Funding

National Center for Gene Therapy and Drugs on RNA Technology

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

The primary treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) is removing the tumor mass as defined by MRI. However, MRI has limited diagnostic and predictive value. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are abundant in GBM tumor microenvironment (TME) and are found in peripheral blood (PB). FKBP51 expression, with its canonical and spliced isoforms, is constitutive in immune cells and aberrant in GBM. Spliced FKBP51s supports M2 polarization. To find an immunologic signature that combined with MRI could advance in diagnosis, we immunophenotyped the macrophages of TME and PB from 37 patients with GBM using FKBP51s and classical M1-M2 markers. We also determined the tumor levels of FKBP51s, PD-L1, and HLA-DR. Tumors expressing FKBP51s showed an increase in various M2 phenotypes and regulatory T cells in PB, indicating immunosuppression. Tumors expressing FKBP51s also activated STAT3 and were associated with reduced survival. Correlative studies with MRI and tumor/macrophages cocultures allowed to interpret TAMs. Tumor volume correlated with M1 infiltration of TME. Cocultures with spheroids produced M1 polarization, suggesting that M1 macrophages may infiltrate alongside cancer stem cells. Cocultures of adherent cells developed the M2 phenotype CD163/FKBP51s expressing pSTAT6, a transcription factor enabling migration and invasion. In patients with recurrences, increased counts of CD163/FKBP51s monocyte/macrophages in PB correlated with callosal infiltration and were accompanied by a concomitant decrease in TME-infiltrating M1 macrophages. PB PD-L1/FKBP51s connoted necrotic tumors. In conclusion, FKBP51s identifies a GBM subtype that significantly impairs the immune system. Moreover, FKBP51s marks PB macrophages associated with MRI features of glioma malignancy that can aid in patient monitoring. Our research suggests that by combining imaging with analysis of monocyte/macrophage subsets in patients with GBM, we can enhance our understanding of the disease and assist in its treatment. We discovered a similarity in the macrophage composition between the TME and PB, and through association with imaging, we could interpret macrophages. In addition, we identified a predictive biomarker that drew more attention to immune suppression of patients with GBM.