American Association for Cancer Research
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Table S4 from PSMA-positive Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Outcomes with Abiraterone or Enzalutamide Treatment in Men with Metastatic Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-15, 08:20 authored by Santosh Gupta, Susan Halabi, Qian Yang, Akash Roy, Alisa Tubbs, Yamini Gore, Daniel J. George, David M. Nanus, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis, Daniel C. Danila, Russell Z. Szmulewitz, Richard Wenstrup, Andrew J. Armstrong

CTC biomarker group incidence by PSMA optimal cutoff (AR-v7, chromosomal instability (CIN), and neuroendocrine (NE) at baseline (N=97) and progression (N=57).


Prevent Cancer Foundation (PCF)

National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation (NIHCM)

Duke Cancer Institute (DCI)

U.S. Department of Defense (US)

Center for Strategic Scientific Initiatives, National Cancer Institute (CSSI, NCI)



In men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy has drastically improved clinical outcomes. A liquid biopsy characterizing PSMA expression could be useful in guiding optimal therapy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the prospective multicenter PROPHECY (Prospective CiRculating PrOstate Cancer Predictors in HighEr Risk mCRPC StudY) trial of men with mCRPC (n = 118) treated with abiraterone (abi) or enzalutamide (enza). Circulating tumor cells (CTC) were enriched (CTC/mL) and characterized for PSMA protein expression/heterogeneity at baseline and progression. We utilized proportional hazards modeling of the association between PSMA-positive (PSMA+) CTC enumeration with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Overall, 97 men with mCRPC had evaluable blood samples for baseline CTC PSMA detection; 78 men (80%) had detectable CTCs. Of these, 55% (43/78) of men had any PSMA CTC detection, 21% (16/78) had ≥2 PSMA+ CTCs/mL, and 19% (8/43) were 100% PSMA+. At progression on abi/enza, 88% (50/57) of men had detectable CTCs, 68% (34/50) had any PSMA CTCs, and 12% (4/34) had 100% PSMA+ CTCs. Among paired cases (n = 57), PSMA+ CTC detection increased slightly after abi/enza progression. Using an optimal cutoff of ≥2 PSMA+ CTCs/mL, median OS was 26, 21, and 11 months for men without CTCs, PSMA− CTCs, and PSMA+ CTCs. Adjusting for prior abi/enza therapy, Halabi clinical risk score, and CTC enumeration, the HRs for OS and PFS for PSMA+ CTC+ were 3.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1–7.8] and 2.3 (95% CI = 0.9–5.8). We observed PSMA CTC heterogeneity between and within patients with mCRPC over time during abi/enza progression. CTC PSMA enumeration was adversely prognostic independent of clinical factors and disease burden. Further validation is warranted in the context of PSMA-targeted therapies.

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