ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: The major obstacle in the management of advanced prostate cancer is the occurrence of resistance to endocrine therapy. Although the androgen receptor (AR) has been linked to therapy failure, the underlying escape mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Being closely related to the AR, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been suggested to play a role in enzalutamide and docetaxel resistance. Given that glucocorticoids are frequently applied to prostate cancer patients, it is essential to unravel the exact role of the GR in prostate cancer progression.Experimental Design: Assessment of GR expression and functional significance in tissues from 177 prostate cancer patients, including 14 lymph node metastases, as well as in several human prostate cancer models, including androgen-dependent, androgen-independent, and long-term antiandrogen-treated cell lines.Results: Although GR expression is reduced in primary prostate cancer tissue, it is restored in metastatic lesions. Relapse patients with high GR experience shortened progression-free survival. GR is significantly increased upon long-term abiraterone or enzalutamide treatment in the majority of preclinical models, thus identifying GR upregulation as an underlying mechanism for cells to bypass AR blockade. Importantly, GR inhibition by RNAi or chemical blockade results in impaired proliferation and 3D-spheroid formation in all tested cell lines.Conclusions: GR upregulation seems to be a common mechanism during antiandrogen treatment and supports the notion that targeting the GR pathway combined with antiandrogen medication may further improve prostate cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 927–38. ©2017 AACR.