ARTICLE ABSTRACTThe identification of biomarkers for patient stratification is fundamental to precision medicine efforts in oncology. Here, we identified two baseline, circulating immune cell subsets associated with overall survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer who were enrolled in two phase II randomized studies of GVAX pancreas and CRS-207 immunotherapy. Single-cell mass cytometry was used to simultaneously measure 38 cell surface or intracellular markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from a phase IIa patient subcohort (N = 38). CITRUS, an algorithm for identification of stratifying subpopulations in multidimensional cytometry datasets, was used to identify single-cell signatures associated with clinical outcome. Patients with a higher abundance of CD8+CD45RO−CCR7−CD57+ cells and a lower abundance of CD14+CD33+CD85j+ cells had improved overall survival [median overall survival, range (days) 271, 43–1,247] compared with patients with a lower abundance of CD8+CD45RO−CCR7−CD57+ cells and higher abundance of CD14+CD33+CD85j+ cells (77, 24–1,247 days; P = 0.0442). The results from this prospective–retrospective biomarker analysis were validated by flow cytometry in 200 patients with pancreatic cancer enrolled in a phase IIb study (P = 0.0047). The identified immune correlates provide potential prognostic or predictive signatures that could be employed for patient stratification.