American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary table S1 from Targeting Glioblastoma Stem Cells through Disruption of the Circadian Clock

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posted on 2023-04-03, 22:40 authored by Zhen Dong, Guoxin Zhang, Meng Qu, Ryan C. Gimple, Qiulian Wu, Zhixin Qiu, Briana C. Prager, Xiuxing Wang, Leo J.Y. Kim, Andrew R. Morton, Deobrat Dixit, Wenchao Zhou, Haidong Huang, Bin Li, Zhe Zhu, Shideng Bao, Stephen C. Mack, Lukas Chavez, Steve A. Kay, Jeremy N. Rich

Table S1 showing the sequence of primers and sgRNAs

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Glioblastomas are highly lethal cancers, containing self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Here, we show that GSCs, differentiated glioblastoma cells (DGC), and nonmalignant brain cultures all displayed robust circadian rhythms, yet GSCs alone displayed exquisite dependence on core clock transcription factors, BMAL1 and CLOCK, for optimal cell growth. Downregulation of BMAL1 or CLOCK in GSCs induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that BMAL1 preferentially bound metabolic genes and was associated with active chromatin regions in GSCs compared with neural stem cells. Targeting BMAL1 or CLOCK attenuated mitochondrial metabolic function and reduced expression of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Small-molecule agonists of two independent BMAL1–CLOCK negative regulators, the cryptochromes and REV-ERBs, downregulated stem cell factors and reduced GSC growth. Combination of cryptochrome and REV-ERB agonists induced synergistic antitumor efficacy. Collectively, these findings show that GSCs co-opt circadian regulators beyond canonical circadian circuitry to promote stemness maintenance and metabolism, offering novel therapeutic paradigms. Cancer stem cells are highly malignant tumor-cell populations. We demonstrate that GSCs selectively depend on circadian regulators, with increased binding of the regulators in active chromatin regions promoting tumor metabolism. Supporting clinical relevance, pharmacologic targeting of circadian networks specifically disrupted cancer stem cell growth and self-renewal.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1469

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