American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary materials and methods from SPON2 Promotes M1-like Macrophage Recruitment and Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis by Distinct Integrin–Rho GTPase–Hippo Pathways

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posted on 2023-03-31, 02:00 authored by Yan-Li Zhang, Qing Li, Xiao-Mei Yang, Fang Fang, Jun Li, Ya-Hui Wang, Qin Yang, Lei Zhu, Hui-Zhen Nie, Xue-Li Zhang, Ming-Xuan Feng, Shu-Heng Jiang, Guang-Ang Tian, Li-Peng Hu, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Qiang Xia, Zhi-Gang Zhang

Supplementary materials and methods of isolation of hMC, immunohistochemical and H&E staining, 3D spheroid analysis, PLA, q-PCR, lentivirus production and cell transduction, siRNA, production of rSPON2, ELISA assay and chemokine assay

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) represent key regulators of the complex interplay between cancer and the immune microenvironment. Matricellular protein SPON2 is essential for recruiting lymphocytes and initiating immune responses. Recent studies have shown that SPON2 has complicated roles in cell migration and tumor progression. Here we report that, in the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), SPON2 not only promotes infiltration of M1-like macrophages but also inhibits tumor metastasis. SPON2-α4β1 integrin signaling activated RhoA and Rac1, increased F-actin reorganization, and promoted M1-like macrophage recruitment. F-Actin accumulation also activated the Hippo pathway by suppressing LATS1 phosphorylation, promoting YAP nuclear translocation, and initiating downstream gene expression. However, SPON2-α5β1 integrin signaling inactivated RhoA and prevented F-actin assembly, thereby inhibiting HCC cell migration; the Hippo pathway was not noticeably involved in SPON2-mediated HCC cell migration. In HCC patients, SPON2 levels correlated positively with prognosis. Overall, our findings provide evidence that SPON2 is a critical factor in mediating the immune response against tumor cell growth and migration in HCC.Significance: Matricellular protein SPON2 acts as an HCC suppressor and utilizes distinct signaling events to perform dual functions in HCC microenvironment.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/9/2305/F1.large.jpg. Cancer Res; 78(9); 2305–17. ©2018 AACR.

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