ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Prior clinical trials evaluating cisplatin for non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) were stopped due to local and systemic toxicity. Currently, there is still a need for improved intravesical therapies, and nanoparticle-based CDDP may be efficacious without the toxicity of free cisplatin observed in the past.Experimental Design: Cisplatin nanoparticles (CDDP NPs) were developed using biocompatible poly(l-aspartic acid sodium salt; PAA), both with and without low and high grafting density of methoxy-polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro cytotoxicity studies confirmed activity of CDDP NPs and CDDP solution against a papillary bladder cancer cell line. Local toxicity was assessed by three weekly intravesical administrations of CDDP formulations. CDDP NPs and CDDP solution were evaluated for bladder absorption in murine models 1 and 4 hours after intravesical administration. In vivo efficacy was evaluated in an immunocompetent carcinogen model of NMIBC.Results: CDDP NPs showed decreased local toxicity, as assessed by bladder weight, compared with CDDP solution. Furthermore, >2 μg/mL of platinum was observed in mouse serum after intravesical administration of CDDP solution, whereas serum platinum was below the limit of quantification after intravesical administration of CDDP NPs. CDDP NPs provided significantly increased (P < 0.05) drug levels in murine bladders compared with CDDP solution for at least 4 hours after intravesical administration. In vivo, CDDP NPs reduced cancer cell proliferation compared with untreated controls, and was the only treatment group without evidence of invasive carcinoma.Conclusions: Cisplatin-loaded PAA NPs have the potential to improve intravesical treatment of NMIBC while reducing local and systemic side effects. Clin Cancer Res; 23(21); 6592–601. ©2017 AACR.