Supplementary Table from Phase II Study of Ramucirumab in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer Previously Treated By Gemcitabine-Based Chemotherapy
ARTICLE ABSTRACTVEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)–mediated angiogenesis contributes to pathogenesis of biliary tract cancers (BTC). We investigated ramucirumab, a mAb targeting VEGFR-2 for treatment of advanced, chemorefractory BTC.
This is a phase II, single-arm trial for advanced, unresectable, pre-treated patients with BTC with ECOG 0/1, adequate liver, renal, and marrow functions. Ramucirumab was administered at 8 mg/kg, 2 weekly with restaging performed 8 weekly. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Exploratory endpoints included correlation of tumor mutational status with PFS and OS.
61 patients were enrolled: the median age was 58.5 years; 59 with stage IV disease; 62%, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; 22%, gallbladder cancer; and 16%, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. All received prior chemotherapy: 52% had 1 prior, and rest ≥2 prior lines. Median treatment duration was 10.1 weeks (range, 2.1–86). Median PFS was 3.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1–4.8]; median OS, 9.5 months (95% CI, 5.8–13.6). One (1.7%) patient achieved partial response; 26 (43.3%), stable disease; and 25 (41.7%), disease progression; DCR, 45%. Median 6-month PFS and OS rates were 32% (95% CI, 0.22–0.46) and 58% (95% CI, 0.47–0.72). The majority of toxicities were grade 1 or 2; grade 3 proteinuria (1, 2%), hypertension (13, 22%), and pulmonary embolism (1, 2%), and grade 4 gastrointestinal bleeding (1, 2%) occurred.
Ramucirumab was well tolerated and resulted in PFS similar to that achieved with other chemotherapy regimens used historically for chemorefractory BTC.