American Association for Cancer Research
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19406207capr190265-sup-222872_2_supp_5869032_q07ww5.pdf (69.67 kB)

Supplementary Table from Bisphosphonates Zometa and Fosamax Synergize with Metformin to Prevent AOM-Induced Colon Cancer in F344 Rat Model

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posted on 2023-04-03, 22:04 authored by Venkateshwar Madka, Gaurav Kumar, Gopal Pathuri, Yuting Zhang, Stanley Lightfoot, Adam S. Asch, Altaf Mohammed, Vernon E. Steele, Chinthalapally V. Rao

Supplementary Table 1

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Recent observational studies suggest that bisphosphonates (BP) and antidiabetic drugs are associated with colorectal cancer risk reduction. Hence, we evaluated the colorectal cancer preventive effects of BPs (zometa and fosamax), individually and when combined with metformin, in azoxymethane-induced rat colon cancer model. Rat (30/group) were randomized and treated subcutaneously with azoxymethane to induce colorectal cancer. Dietary intervention with zometa or fosamax (0, 20, or 100 ppm) or metformin (1,000 ppm) or the combinations (zometa/fosamax 20 ppm plus metformin 1,000 ppm) began 4 weeks after azoxymethane treatment, at premalignant lesions stage. Rats were killed 40 weeks post drug intervention to assess colorectal cancer preventive efficacy. Dietary zometa (20 ppm) inhibited noninvasive adenocarcinomas multiplicity by 37% (P < 0.03) when compared with control diet fed group. Fosamax at 20 ppm and 100 ppm significantly reduced adenocarcinoma incidence (P < 0.005) and inhibited the noninvasive adenocarcinoma multiplicities by 43.8% (P < 0.009) and 60.8% (P < 0.004), respectively, compared with the group fed control diet. At 1,000 ppm dose, metformin failed to suppress colon adenocarcinoma formation. However, the lower dose combinations of zometa or fosamax with metformin resulted in significant inhibition of noninvasive adenocarcinoma by 48% (P < 0.006) and 64% (P < 0.0002), and invasive adenocarcinoma by 49% (P < 0.0005) and 38% (P < 0.006), respectively. Biomarker analysis of combination drug–treated tumors showed a decrease in cell proliferation with increased apoptosis when compared with untreated tumors. Overall, our results suggest that the combination of low doses of zometa or fosamax with metformin showed synergistic effect and significantly inhibited colon adenocarcinoma incidence and multiplicity.

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