American Association for Cancer Research

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Supplementary Table S2 from Associations of Race and Ethnicity with Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Decompensation, and Mortality in US Veterans with Cirrhosis

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posted on 2023-08-01, 08:21 authored by Trang VoPham, Anne Cravero, Lauren D. Feld, Pamela Green, Ziding Feng, Kristin Berry, Nicole J. Kim, Philip Vutien, Jason A. Mendoza, George N. Ioannou

Supplementary Table S2. ICD-9 codes for type 2 diabetes mellitus, alcohol use disorders, hemochromatosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, and low socioeconomic status


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)

United States Department of Health and Human Services

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National Cancer Institute (NCI)

United States Department of Health and Human Services

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U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)



Among patients with cirrhosis, it remains unclear whether there are racial/ethnic differences in cirrhosis complications and mortality. We examined the associations between race/ethnicity and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis decompensation, and all-cause mortality overall and by cirrhosis etiology. US Veterans diagnosed with cirrhosis from 2001 to 2014 (n = 120,992), due to hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 55,814), alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD; n = 36,323), hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 1,972), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; n = 17,789), or other (n = 9,094), were followed through 2020 for incident HCC (n = 10,242), cirrhosis decompensation (n = 27,887), and mortality (n = 81,441). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, Hispanic patients had higher risk for HCC overall (aHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.24–1.41) and by cirrhosis etiology, particularly for ALD- (aHR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.42–1.87) and NAFLD-cirrhosis (aHR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.41–2.20), whereas non-Hispanic Black patients had lower HCC risk in ALD- (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63–0.98) and NAFLD-cirrhosis (aHR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33–0.89). Asian patients had higher HCC risk (aHR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.29–2.23), driven by HCV- and HBV-cirrhosis. Non-Hispanic Black patients had lower risk for cirrhosis decompensation overall (aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68–0.74) and by cirrhosis etiology. There was lower risk for mortality among all other racial/ethnic groups compared with non-Hispanic White patients. Race/ethnicity is an important predictor for risk of developing HCC, decompensation, and mortality. Future research should examine factors underlying these racial/ethnic differences to inform prevention, screening, and treatment for patients with cirrhosis.

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