American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Table S2 from An Allogeneic Multiple Myeloma GM-CSF–Secreting Vaccine with Lenalidomide Induces Long-term Immunity and Durable Clinical Responses in Patients in Near Complete Remission

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posted on 2023-03-31, 23:14 authored by Luca Biavati, Carol Ann Huff, Anna Ferguson, Amy Sidorski, M. Amanda Stevens, Lakshmi Rudraraju, Cristina Zucchinetti, Syed Abbas Ali, Philip Imus, Christian B. Gocke, Rachel M. Gittelman, Sarah Johnson, Catherine Sanders, Marissa Vignali, Anita Gandhi, Xiaobu Ye, Kimberly A. Noonan, Ivan Borrello

Supplementary Table S2



Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy

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Kathryn Zugby Myeloma Research Fund



This proof-of-principle clinical trial evaluated whether an allogeneic multiple myeloma GM-CSF–secreting vaccine (MM-GVAX) in combination with lenalidomide could deepen the clinical response in patients with multiple myeloma in sustained near complete remission (nCR). Fifteen patients on lenalidomide were treated with MM-GVAX and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV; Prevnar) at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months. Eight patients (53.3%) achieved a true CR. With a median follow-up of 5 years, the median progression-free survival had not been reached, and the median overall survival was 7.8 years from enrollment. MM-GVAX induced clonal T-cell expansion and measurable cytokine responses that persisted up to 7 years in all patients. At baseline, a higher minimal residual disease was predictive of early relapse. After vaccination, a lack of both CD27−DNAM1−CD8+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells was associated with disease progression. MM-GVAX, along with lenalidomide, effectively primed durable immunity and resulted in long-term disease control, as suggested by the reappearance of a detectable, fluctuating M-spike without meeting the criteria for clinical relapse. For patients in a nCR, MM-GVAX administration was safe and resulted in prolonged clinical responses.

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