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Supplementary Table S1 from Metabolomic, DNA Methylomic, and Transcriptomic Profiling of Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Effects on LPS-Exposed Lung Epithelial Cells

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posted on 2023-03-28, 17:20 authored by Pochung Jordan Chou, Md Shahid Sarwar, Lujing Wang, Renyi Wu, Shanyi Li, Rasika R. Hudlikar, Yujue Wang, Xiaoyang Su, Ah-Ng Kong

Supplementary Table S1 shows the primer sequences of the genes used in the qPCR assay.

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with anticancer effects via epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms. The role of SAHA in metabolic rewiring and epigenomic reprogramming to inhibit pro-tumorigenic cascades in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, DNA methylome reprogramming, and transcriptomic gene expression by SAHA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model of lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells. LC/MS was used for metabolomic analysis, while next-generation sequencing was done to study epigenetic changes. The metabolomic study reveals that SAHA treatment significantly regulated methionine, glutathione, and nicotinamide metabolism with alteration of the metabolite levels of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, glutathione, nicotinamide, 1-methylnicotinamide, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in BEAS-2B cells. Epigenomic CpG methyl-seq shows SAHA revoked a list of differentially methylated regions in the promoter region of the genes, such as HDAC11, miR4509–1, and miR3191. Transcriptomic RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reveals SAHA abrogated LPS-induced differentially expressed genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1α (IL1α), IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL24, and IL32. Integrative analysis of DNA methylome-RNA transcriptome displays a list of genes, of which CpG methylation correlated with changes in gene expression. qPCR validation of transcriptomic RNA-seq data shows that SAHA treatment significantly reduced the LPS-induced mRNA levels of IL1β, IL6, DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), and DNMT3A in BEAS-2B cells. Altogether, SAHA treatment alters the mitochondrial metabolism, epigenetic CpG methylation, and transcriptomic gene expression to inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells, which may provide novel molecular targets to inhibit the inflammation component of lung carcinogenesis. Inflammation increases the risk of lung cancer and blocking inflammation could reduce the incidence of lung cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid regulates metabolic rewiring and epigenetic reprogramming to attenuate lipopolysaccharide-driven inflammation in lung epithelial cells.

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