ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: The accumulation of emergent RAS mutations during anti-EGFR therapy is of interest as a mechanism for acquired resistance to anti-EGFR treatment. Plasma analysis of circulating tumor (ct) DNA is a minimally invasive and highly sensitive method to determine RAS mutational status.Experimental Design: This biomarker analysis of the global phase III ASPECCT study used next-generation sequencing to detect expanded RAS ctDNA mutations in panitumumab-treated patients. Plasma samples collected at baseline and posttreatment were analyzed categorically for the presence of RAS mutations by the PlasmaSelect-R 64-gene panel at 0.1% sensitivity.Results: Among panitumumab-treated patients with evaluable plasma samples at baseline (n = 238), 188 (79%) were wild-type (WT) RAS, and 50 (21%) were mutant RAS. Of the 188 patients with baseline ctDNA WT RAS status, 164 had evaluable posttreatment results with a 32% rate of emergent RAS mutations. The median overall survival for WT and RAS mutant status by ctDNA at baseline was 13.7 (95% confidence interval, 11.5–15.4) and 7.9 months (6.4–9.6), respectively (P < 0.0001). Clinical outcomes were not significantly different between patients with and without emergent ctDNA RAS mutations.Conclusions: Although patients with baseline ctDNA RAS mutations had worse outcomes than patients who were WT RAS before initiating treatment, emergent ctDNA RAS mutations were not associated with less favorable patient outcomes in panitumumab-treated patients. Further research is needed to determine a clinically relevant threshold for baseline and emergent ctDNA RAS mutations. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5602–9. ©2018 AACR.