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Supplementary Table 3 from Unraveling Cancer Chemoimmunotherapy Mechanisms by Gene and Protein Expression Profiling of Responses to Cyclophosphamide

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posted on 2023-03-30, 20:22 authored by Federica Moschella, Mara Valentini, Eleonora Aricò, Iole Macchia, Paola Sestili, Maria Teresa D'Urso, Cristiano Alessandri, Filippo Belardelli, Enrico Proietti
Supplementary Table 3 from Unraveling Cancer Chemoimmunotherapy Mechanisms by Gene and Protein Expression Profiling of Responses to Cyclophosphamide

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Certain chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cyclophosphamide (CTX), can enhance the antitumor efficacy of immunotherapy because of their capacity to modulate innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, it has been argued that this capacity may be more significant to chemotherapeutic efficacy in general than is currently appreciated. To gain insights into the core mechanisms of chemoimmunotherapy, we methodically profiled the effects of CTX on gene expression in bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood, and on cytokine expression in plasma and bone marrow of tumor-bearing mice. Gene and protein expression were modulated early and transiently by CTX, leading to upregulation of a variety of immunomodulatory factors, including danger signals, pattern recognition receptors, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors. These factors are involved in sensing CTX myelotoxicity and activating repair mechanisms, which, in turn, stimulate immunoactivation events that promote efficacy. In particular, CTX induced a T-helper 17 (Th17)-related gene signature associated with an increase in Th17, Th1, and activated CD25+CD4+Foxp3− T lymphocytes and a slight recovery of regulatory T cells. By analyzing gene and protein expression kinetics and their relationship to the antitumor efficacy of different therapeutic schedules of combination, we determined that optimal timing for performing adoptive immunotherapy is approximately 1 day after CTX treatment. Together, our findings highlight factors that may propel the efficacy of chemoimmunotherapy, offering a mechanistic glimpse of the important immune modulatory effects of CTX. Cancer Res; 71(10); 3528–39. ©2011 AACR.