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Supplementary Table 2 from Phosphorylation of Galectin-3 Contributes to Malignant Transformation of Human Epithelial Cells via Modulation of Unique Sets of Genes

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posted on 2023-03-30, 16:44 authored by Nachman Mazurek, Yun Jie Sun, Janet E. Price, Latha Ramdas, Wendy Schober, Pratima Nangia-Makker, James C. Byrd, Avraham Raz, Robert S. Bresalier
Supplementary Table 2 from Phosphorylation of Galectin-3 Contributes to Malignant Transformation of Human Epithelial Cells via Modulation of Unique Sets of Genes

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Galectin-3 is a multifunctional β-galactoside-binding protein implicated in apoptosis, malignant transformation, and tumor progression. The mechanisms by which galectin-3 contributes to malignant progression are not fully understood. In this study, we found that the introduction of wild-type galectin-3 into nontumorigenic, galectin-3-null BT549 human breast epithelial cells conferred tumorigenicity and metastatic potential in nude mice, and that galectin-3 expressed by the cells was phosphorylated. In contrast, BT549 cells expressing galectin-3 incapable of being phosphorylated (Ser6→Glu Ser6→Ala) were nontumorigenic. A microarray analysis of 10,000 human genes, comparing BT549 transfectants expressing wild-type and those expressing phosphomutant galectin-3, identified 188 genes that were differentially expressed (>2.5-fold). Genes affected by introduction of wild-type phosphorylated but not phosphomutant galectin-3 included those involved in oxidative stress, a novel noncaspase lysosomal apoptotic pathway, cell cycle regulation, transcriptional activation, cytoskeleton remodeling, cell adhesion, and tumor invasion. The reliability of the microarray data was validated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and by Western blot analysis, and clinical relevance was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR screening of a panel of matched pairs of breast tumors. Differentially regulated genes in breast cancers that are also predicted to be associated with phospho-galectin-3 in transformed BT549 cells include C-type lectin 2, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5, cathepsins L2, and cyclin D1. These data show the functional diversity of galectin-3 and suggest that phosphorylation of the protein is necessary for regulation (directly or indirectly) of unique sets of genes that play a role in malignant transformation.

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