PDF file-56KB, Analysis of hyperpolarized dynamics in bioreactors containing perfused HK2, UMRC6 and UOK262 cells at a flow rate of 2.5ml/min.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTRenal cell carcinomas (RCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with a wide range of aggressiveness. Noninvasive methods to confidently predict the tumor biologic behavior and select appropriate treatment are lacking. Here, we investigate the dynamic metabolic flux in living RCC cells using hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) combined with a bioreactor platform and interrogated the biochemical basis of the MRS data with respect to cancer aggressiveness. RCC cells have significantly higher pyruvate-to-lactate flux than the normal renal tubule cells. Furthermore, a key feature distinguishing the localized from the metastatic RCC cells is the lactate efflux rate, mediated by the monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4). The metastatic RCC cells have significantly higher MCT4 expression and corresponding higher lactate efflux, which is essential for maintaining a high rate of glycolysis. We show that such differential cellular transporter expression and associated metabolic phenotype can be noninvasively assessed via real-time monitoring of hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate-to-lactate flux. Cancer Res; 73(2); 529–38. ©2012 AACR.