ARTICLE ABSTRACTDeregulated activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) results in loss of cell-cycle checkpoint function and increased expression of antiapoptotic proteins, which has been directly linked to the molecular pathology of cancer. BAY 1000394 inhibits the activity of cell-cycle CDKs CDK1, CDK2, CDK3, CDK4, and of transcriptional CDKs CDK7 and CDK9 with IC50 values in the range between 5 and 25 nmol/L. Cell proliferation was inhibited at low nanomolar concentration in a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines. In cell-based assays, the inhibition of phosphorylation of the CDK substrates retinoblastoma protein, nucleophosmin, and RNA polymerase II was shown. Cell-cycle profiles were consistent with inhibition of CDK 1, 2, and 4 as shown in cell-cycle block and release experiments. The physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of BAY 1000394 facilitate rapid absorption and moderate oral bioavailability. The compound potently inhibits growth of various human tumor xenografts on athymic mice including models of chemotherapy resistance upon oral dosing. Furthermore, BAY 1000394 shows more than additive efficacy when combined with cisplatin and etoposide. These results suggest that BAY 1000394 is a potent pan-CDK inhibitor and a novel oral cytotoxic agent currently in phase I clinical trials. Mol Cancer Ther; 11(10); 2265–73. ©2012 AACR.