Supplementary Table 1 from Reovirus Virotherapy Overrides Tumor Antigen Presentation Evasion and Promotes Protective Antitumor Immunity
ARTICLE ABSTRACTTumor-associated immunosuppressive strategies, such as lack of tumor antigen recognition and failure of lymphocyte activation and homing, resist the development of tumor-specific immunity and hamper the immune response–mediated elimination of cancerous cells. In this report, we show that reovirus virotherapy overrides such a tumor immune evasion and establishes clinically meaningful antitumor immunity capable of protecting against subsequent tumor challenge. Reovirus-mediated destruction of tumor cells facilitates the recognition of tumor antigens by promoting the display of otherwise inaccessible tumor-specific immunogenic peptides on the surface of dendritic cells (DC). Furthermore, on exposure to reovirus, DCs produce IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40/70, IL-17, CD30L, eotaxin, GM-CSF, KC, MCP-1, MCP-5, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, RANTES, TNF-α, VCAM-1, VSGF, CXCL-16, AXL, and MCP-2; undergo maturation; and migrate into the tumor microenvironment along with CD8 T cells. These reovirus-activated DCs also acquire the capacity to prime tumor antigen–specific transgenic T cells in vitro and intrinsic antitumor T-cell response in vivo. Further, reovirus virotherapy augments the efficacy of DC- or T cell–based anticancer immunotherapies and synergistically enhances the survival in tumor-bearing mice. Most importantly, antitumor cellular immune responses initiated during reovirus oncotherapy protect the host against subsequent tumor challenge in a reovirus-independent but antigen-dependent manner. These reovirus oncotherapy–initiated antitumor immune responses represent an anticancer therapeutic entity that can maintain a long-term cancer-free health even after discontinuation of therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(11); 2924–33. ©2010 AACR.