Whole blood hafnium concentrations for each patient following NBTXR3 injection. Quantification of NBTXR3 in the blood was performed to evaluate passage into the systemic circulation. The hafnium component of NBTXR3 was quantified through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Whole blood samples were collected on Day 1: before injection, immediately after the injection start, at the end of the injection, 5, 10, 15, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after completion of the injection; and on Day 2. Three additional blood samples were collected during radiotherapy, between the 11th and 20th radiotherapy sessions. One blood sample was also collected prior to surgery.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: This phase I study aimed to determine the recommended dose (RD), safety profile, and feasibility of a procedure combining intratumoral injection of hafnium oxide nanoparticles (NBTXR3; a radioenhancer) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for preoperative treatment of adults with locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS).Experimental Design: Patients had a preoperative indication of EBRT for STS of the extremity or trunk. Baseline tumor volume (TV) was calculated by MRI. NBTXR3 was injected percutaneously into tumors at 53.3 g/L. Dose escalation was based on four levels equivalent to 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of baseline TV. NBTXR3 was visualized in the tumor 24 hours postinjection, and EBRT was initiated (50 Gy over 5 weeks). Surgery was performed 6 to 8 weeks after EBRT completion.Results: Twenty-two patients completed NBTXR3 injection, EBRT, and surgery and were followed for a median 22 months (range, 6–40). At NBTXR3 20% of TV, two dose-limiting toxicities occurred: injection-site pain and postoperative scar necrosis. The RD was defined as 10%. No leakage of NBTXR3 into surrounding tissues occurred; intratumor NBTXR3 levels were maintained during radiotherapy. At the RD, median tumor shrinkage was 40% (range 71% shrinkage, 22% increase); median percentage of residual viable tumor cells was 26% (range, 10%–90%). Patients receiving 20% of TV demonstrated pathologic complete responses. Seven grade 3 adverse events occurred, which were reversible.Conclusions: A single intratumoral injection of NBTXR3 at 10% of TV with preoperative EBRT was technically feasible with manageable toxicity; clinical activity was observed. Clin Cancer Res; 23(4); 908–17. ©2016 AACR.