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Supplementary Methods from Targeting Protein Translation by Rocaglamide and Didesmethylrocaglamide to Treat MPNST and Other Sarcomas

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posted on 2023-04-03, 18:06 authored by Long-Sheng Chang, Janet L. Oblinger, Sarah S. Burns, Jie Huang, Larry W. Anderson, Melinda G. Hollingshead, Rulong Shen, Li Pan, Garima Agarwal, Yulin Ren, Ryan D. Roberts, Barry R. O'Keefe, A. Douglas Kinghorn, Jerry M. Collins

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Department of Defense

National Cancer Institute

NCI

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) frequently overexpress eukaryotic initiation factor 4F components, and the eIF4A inhibitor silvestrol potently suppresses MPNST growth. However, silvestrol has suboptimal drug-like properties, including a bulky structure, poor oral bioavailability (<2%), sensitivity to MDR1 efflux, and pulmonary toxicity in dogs. We compared ten silvestrol-related rocaglates lacking the dioxanyl ring and found that didesmethylrocaglamide (DDR) and rocaglamide (Roc) had growth-inhibitory activity comparable with silvestrol. Structure–activity relationship analysis revealed that the dioxanyl ring present in silvestrol was dispensable for, but may enhance, cytotoxicity. Both DDR and Roc arrested MPNST cells at G2–M, increased the sub-G1 population, induced cleavage of caspases and PARP, and elevated the levels of the DNA-damage response marker γH2A.X, while decreasing the expression of AKT and ERK1/2, consistent with translation inhibition. Unlike silvestrol, DDR and Roc were not sensitive to MDR1 inhibition. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed that Roc had 50% oral bioavailability. Importantly, Roc, when administered intraperitoneally or orally, showed potent antitumor effects in an orthotopic MPNST mouse model and did not induce pulmonary toxicity in dogs as found with silvestrol. Treated tumors displayed degenerative changes and had more cleaved caspase-3–positive cells, indicative of increased apoptosis. Furthermore, Roc effectively suppressed the growth of osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma cells and patient-derived xenografts. Both Roc- and DDR-treated sarcoma cells showed decreased levels of multiple oncogenic kinases, including insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. The more favorable drug-like properties of DDR and Roc and the potent antitumor activity of Roc suggest that these rocaglamides could become viable treatments for MPNST and other sarcomas.

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