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Supplementary Methods from Integration of High-Resolution Methylome and Transcriptome Analyses to Dissect Epigenomic Changes in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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posted on 2023-03-30, 21:51 authored by Stephan Busche, Bing Ge, Ramon Vidal, Jean-François Spinella, Virginie Saillour, Chantal Richer, Jasmine Healy, Shu-Huang Chen, Arnaud Droit, Daniel Sinnett, Tomi Pastinen

PDF - 47K, Additional experimental data including clinical sample analysis, principal component analysis, RNA sequencing/expression analysis profile, ingenuity pathway analysis, and RNA expression validation through quantitative real-time RT-PCR

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. Although the genetic determinants underlying disease onset remain unclear, epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation are suggested to contribute significantly to leukemogenesis. Using the Illumina 450K array, we assessed DNA methylation in matched tumor-normal samples of 46 childhood patients with pre-B ALL, extending single CpG-site resolution analysis of the pre-B ALL methylome beyond CpG-islands (CGI). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of CpG-site neighborhood, gene, or microRNA (miRNA) gene-associated methylation levels separated the tumor cohort according to major pre-B ALL subtypes, and methylation in CGIs, CGI shores, and in regions around the transcription start site was found to significantly correlate with transcript expression. Focusing on samples carrying the t(12;21) ETV6–RUNX1 fusion, we identified 119 subtype-specific high-confidence marker CpG-loci. Pathway analyses linked the CpG-loci–associated genes with hematopoiesis and cancer. Further integration with whole-transcriptome data showed the effects of methylation on expression of 17 potential drivers of leukemogenesis. Independent validation of array methylation and sequencing-derived transcript expression with Sequenom Epityper technology and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively, indicates more than 80% empirical accuracy of our genome-wide findings. In summary, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling enabled us to separate pre-B ALL according to major subtypes, to map epigenetic biomarkers specific for the t(12;21) subtype, and through a combined methylome and transcriptome approach to identify downstream effects on candidate drivers of leukemogenesis. Cancer Res; 73(14); 4323–36. ©2013 AACR.

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