ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: To identify mediators of glioblastoma antiangiogenic therapy resistance and target these mediators in xenografts.Experimental Design: We conducted microarray analysis comparing bevacizumab-resistant glioblastomas (BRG) with pretreatment tumors from the same patients. We established novel xenograft models of antiangiogenic therapy resistance to target candidate resistance mediator(s).Results: BRG microarray analysis revealed upregulation versus pretreatment of receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met, which underwent further investigation because of its prior biologic plausibility as a bevacizumab resistance mediator. BRGs exhibited increased hypoxia versus pretreatment in a manner correlating with their c-Met upregulation, increased c-Met phosphorylation, and increased phosphorylation of c-Met–activated focal adhesion kinase and STAT3. We developed 2 novel xenograft models of antiangiogenic therapy resistance. In the first model, serial bevacizumab treatment of an initially responsive xenograft generated a xenograft with acquired bevacizumab resistance, which exhibited upregulated c-Met expression versus pretreatment. In the second model, a BRG-derived xenograft maintained refractoriness to the MRI tumor vasculature alterations and survival-promoting effects of bevacizumab. Growth of this BRG-derived xenograft was inhibited by a c-Met inhibitor. Transducing these xenograft cells with c-Met short hairpin RNA inhibited their invasion and survival in hypoxia, disrupted their mesenchymal morphology, and converted them from bevacizumab-resistant to bevacizumab-responsive. Engineering bevacizumab-responsive cells to express constitutively active c-Met caused these cells to form bevacizumab-resistant xenografts.Conclusion: These findings support the role of c-Met in survival in hypoxia and invasion, features associated with antiangiogenic therapy resistance, and growth and therapeutic resistance of xenografts resistant to antiangiogenic therapy. Therapeutically targeting c-Met could prevent or overcome antiangiogenic therapy resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 19(7); 1773–83. ©2012 AACR.