American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Methods from Gene Expression Profile Identifies Tyrosine Kinase c-Met as a Targetable Mediator of Antiangiogenic Therapy Resistance

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-31, 18:12 authored by Arman Jahangiri, Michael De Lay, Liane M. Miller, W. Shawn Carbonell, Yu-Long Hu, Kan Lu, Maxwell W. Tom, Jesse Paquette, Taku A. Tokuyasu, Sean Tsao, Roxanne Marshall, Arie Perry, Kirsten M. Bjorgan, Myriam M. Chaumeil, Sabrina M. Ronen, Gabriele Bergers, Manish K. Aghi

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Purpose: To identify mediators of glioblastoma antiangiogenic therapy resistance and target these mediators in xenografts.Experimental Design: We conducted microarray analysis comparing bevacizumab-resistant glioblastomas (BRG) with pretreatment tumors from the same patients. We established novel xenograft models of antiangiogenic therapy resistance to target candidate resistance mediator(s).Results: BRG microarray analysis revealed upregulation versus pretreatment of receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met, which underwent further investigation because of its prior biologic plausibility as a bevacizumab resistance mediator. BRGs exhibited increased hypoxia versus pretreatment in a manner correlating with their c-Met upregulation, increased c-Met phosphorylation, and increased phosphorylation of c-Met–activated focal adhesion kinase and STAT3. We developed 2 novel xenograft models of antiangiogenic therapy resistance. In the first model, serial bevacizumab treatment of an initially responsive xenograft generated a xenograft with acquired bevacizumab resistance, which exhibited upregulated c-Met expression versus pretreatment. In the second model, a BRG-derived xenograft maintained refractoriness to the MRI tumor vasculature alterations and survival-promoting effects of bevacizumab. Growth of this BRG-derived xenograft was inhibited by a c-Met inhibitor. Transducing these xenograft cells with c-Met short hairpin RNA inhibited their invasion and survival in hypoxia, disrupted their mesenchymal morphology, and converted them from bevacizumab-resistant to bevacizumab-responsive. Engineering bevacizumab-responsive cells to express constitutively active c-Met caused these cells to form bevacizumab-resistant xenografts.Conclusion: These findings support the role of c-Met in survival in hypoxia and invasion, features associated with antiangiogenic therapy resistance, and growth and therapeutic resistance of xenografts resistant to antiangiogenic therapy. Therapeutically targeting c-Met could prevent or overcome antiangiogenic therapy resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 19(7); 1773–83. ©2012 AACR.

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