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Supplementary Methods and Figure Legend from ZEB1 Promotes Invasiveness of Colorectal Carcinoma Cells through the Opposing Regulation of uPA and PAI-1

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posted on 2023-03-31, 17:31 authored by Ester Sánchez-Tilló, Oriol de Barrios, Laura Siles, Pier G. Amendola, Douglas S. Darling, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Antoni Castells, Antonio Postigo

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Purpose: Carcinoma cells enhance their invasive capacity through dedifferentiation and dissolution of intercellular adhesions. A key activator of this process is the ZEB1 transcription factor, which is induced in invading cancer cells by canonical Wnt signaling (β-catenin/TCF4). Tumor invasiveness also entails proteolytic remodeling of the peritumoral stroma. This study aimed to investigate the potential regulation by ZEB1 of the plasminogen proteolytic system constituted by the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1).Experimental Design: Through multiple experimental approaches, colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cell lines and samples from human primary CRC and ZEB1 (−/−) mice were used to examine ZEB1-mediated regulation of uPA and PAI-1 at the protein, mRNA, and transcriptional level.Results: ZEB1 regulates uPA and PAI-1 in opposite directions: induces uPA and inhibits PAI-1. In vivo expression of uPA depends on ZEB1 as it is severely reduced in the developing intestine of ZEB1 null (−/−) mice. Optimal induction of uPA by Wnt signaling requires ZEB1 expression. ZEB1 binds to the uPA promoter and activates its transcription through a mechanism implicating the histone acetyltransferase p300. In contrast, inhibition of PAI-1 by ZEB1 does not involve transcriptional repression but rather downregulation of mRNA stability. ZEB1-mediated tumor cell migration and invasion depend on its induction of uPA. ZEB1 coexpresses with uPA in cancer cells at the invasive front of CRCs.Conclusions: ZEB1 promotes tumor invasiveness not only via induction in cancer cells of a motile dedifferentiated phenotype but also by differential regulation of genes involved in stroma remodeling. Clin Cancer Res; 19(5); 1071–82. ©2013 AACR.

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