Supplementary Methods, Figures 1-4 from Histone Deacetylase Cytoplasmic Trapping by a Novel Fluorescent HDAC Inhibitor
ARTICLE ABSTRACTInhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) are an important emerging class of drugs for the treatment of cancers. HDAC inhibitors are currently under evaluation in clinical trials as single agents and as sensitizers in combinations with chemotherapies and radiation therapy. Although these drugs have important effects on cancer cell growth and functions, the mechanisms underlying HDAC inhibitor activities remain to be fully defined. By using rational drug design, compound 2, a fluorescent class II HDAC targeting inhibitor, was synthesized and observed to accumulate in the cytoplasmic compartments of treated cells, but not in the nuclei. Furthermore, immunostaining of inhibitor exposed cells for HDAC4 showed accumulation of this enzyme in the cytoplasmic compartment with concomitant increased acetylation of tubulin and nuclear histones. These observations support a mechanism by which nuclear histone acetylation is increased as a result of HDAC4 trapping and sequestration in the cytoplasm after binding to compound 2. The HDAC inhibitor offers potential as a novel theranostic agent, combining diagnostic and therapeutic properties in the same molecule. Mol Cancer Ther; 10(9); 1591–9. ©2011 AACR.