American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Materials from Lung Cancer Chemoprevention with Celecoxib in Former Smokers

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posted on 2023-04-03, 19:30 authored by Jenny T. Mao, Michael D. Roth, Michael C. Fishbein, Denise R. Aberle, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Jian Yu Rao, Donald P. Tashkin, Lee Goodglick, E. Carmack Holmes, Robert B. Cameron, Steven M. Dubinett, Robert Elashoff, Eva Szabo, David Elashoff
Supplementary Materials from Lung Cancer Chemoprevention with Celecoxib in Former Smokers



Ample studies suggest that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis and that COX-2 inhibition may help prevent lung cancer. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the COX-2–selective inhibitor celecoxib (400 mg bid for 6 months) in former-smokers (age ≥ 45, ≥ 30 pack-years of smoking, ≥ 1 year of sustained abstinence from smoking). We assessed the impact of celecoxib on cellular and molecular events associated with lung cancer pathogenesis; the primary endpoint was bronchial Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) after 6 months of treatment. Of 137 randomized subjects, 101 completed both baseline and 6-month bronchoscopies and were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. The beneficial effect on Ki-67 LI was greater in the celecoxib arm (versus placebo) in a mixed-effects analysis (P = 0.0006), and celecoxib significantly decreased Ki-67 LI by an average of 34%, whereas placebo increased Ki-67 LI by an average of 3.8% (P = 0.04; t test). In participants who crossed over to the other study arm at 6 months (all of whom had received 6 months of celecoxib at the end of a 12 months treatment period), the decreases in Ki-67 LI correlated with a reduction and/or resolution of lung nodules on computed tomography. Celecoxib significantly reduced plasma c-reactive protein and interleukin-6 mRNA and protein and increased 15(S)-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. The baseline ratio of COX-2 to 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase mRNA in BAL cells was a significant predictive marker of Ki-67 response to celecoxib (P = 0.002). Our collective findings support the continued investigation of celecoxib for lung cancer chemoprevention in former smokers at a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Cancer Prev Res; 4(7); 984–93. ©2011 AACR.

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