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Supplementary Materials and Methods S1 from Dysregulation and Epigenetic Reprogramming of NRF2 Signaling Axis Promote Acquisition of Cisplatin Resistance and Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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posted on 2023-04-01, 00:26 authored by Abdullah A. Osman, Emre Arslan, Mason Bartels, Chieko Michikawa, Antje Lindemann, Katarzyna Tomczak, Wangjie Yu, Vlad Sandulache, Wencai Ma, Li Shen, Jing Wang, Anand K. Singh, Mitchell J. Frederick, Nakia D. Spencer, Jeffery Kovacs, Timothy Heffernan, William F. Symmans, Kunal Rai, Jeffrey N. Myers

Supplementary Materials and Methods

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy is a first-line treatment for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), despite a high rate of treatment failures, acquired resistance, and subsequent aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to study the mechanism of CDDP resistance and metastasis in HNSCC. We investigated the role of NRF2 pathway activation as a driven event for tumor progression and metastasis of HNSCC. Human HNSCC cell lines that are highly resistant to CDDP were generated. Clonogenic survival assays and a mouse model of oral cancer were used to examine the impact of NRF2 activation in vitro and in vivo on CDDP sensitivity and development of metastasis. Western blotting, immunostaining, whole-exome sequencing, single-cell transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling platforms were performed to dissect clonal evolution and molecular mechanisms. Implantation of CDDP-resistant HNSCC cells into the tongues of nude mice resulted in a very high rate of distant metastases. The CDDP-resistant cells had significantly higher expression of NRF2 pathway genes in the presence of newly acquired KEAP1 mutations, or via epigenomic activation of target genes. Knockdown of NRF2 or restoration of the wild-type KEAP1 genes resensitized resistant cells to CDDP and decreased distant metastasis (DM). Finally, treatment with inhibitor of glutaminase-1, a NRF2 target gene, alleviated CDDP resistance. CDDP resistance and development of DM are associated with dysregulated and epigenetically reprogrammed KEAP1–NRF2 signaling pathway. A strategy targeting KEAP1/NRF2 pathway or glutamine metabolism deserves further clinical investigation in patients with CDDP-resistant head and neck tumors.

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