Supplementary Methods, Figure Legends and Tables Supplementary Table I: Inhibitors used in this study Supplementary Table II: Summary of primers used for murine (m) and human (h) samples Supplementary Table III: Primer for murine promoter constructs and mutagenesis primer
ARTICLE ABSTRACTOncogenic transformation is often associated with an increased expression of the cAMP response element binding (CREB) transcription factor controlling the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and tumor development, but a link between K-RASV12-induced transformation and CREB has not yet been determined. Therefore, the constitutive and/or inhibitor-regulated mRNA and protein expression of CREB and signal transduction components and growth properties of parental fibroblasts, K-RASV12-transformed counterparts, shCREB K-RASV12 transfectants and human colon carcinoma cells were determined. Increased CREB transcript and protein levels accompanied by an enhanced CREB activity was detected in K-RASV12-transformed murine fibroblasts and K-RASV12-mutated human tumor cells, which is dependent on the MAPK/MEK, PI3K, and/or PKC signal transduction. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of colorectal carcinoma lesions and murine tumors, with known KRAS gene mutation status, using antibodies specific for CREB and phospho-CREB, revealed a mechanistic link between CREB expression and K-RASV12-mutated colorectal carcinoma lesions when compared with control tissues. Silencing of CREB by shRNA and/or treatment with a CREB inhibitor (KG-501) reverted the neoplastic phenotype of K-RASV12 transformants as demonstrated by a more fibroblast-like morphology, enhanced apoptosis sensitivity, increased doubling time, decreased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, reduced tumorigenesis, and enhanced immunogenicity in vivo. The impaired shCREB-mediated invasion of K-RASV12 transformants was accompanied by a transcriptional downregulation of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) coupled with their reduced enzymatic activity.Implications: CREB plays a key role in the K-RASV12-mediated neoplastic phenotype and represents a suitable therapeutic target for murine and human K-RASV12-induced tumors. Mol Cancer Res; 13(8); 1248–62. ©2015 AACR.