PDF file - 23K, Supplementary material 9: Doxycycline activation of AR shRNA modulates the mRNA levels of the receptor (A) and its negative (ABCG1, B) and positive (PSA, C) target genes.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTAndrogen deprivation therapy (ADTh) remains a mainstay of prostate cancer treatment, but its efficacy is bypassed by mechanisms that are not fully understood. In human prostate cancer cells, androgen glucuronidation, catalyzed by the two UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, is the major androgen inactivation pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of ADTh on androgen glucuronidation to evaluate its potential clinical utility for prostate cancer prognosis or therapy. UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expression was evaluated in prostate cancer specimens from untreated or treated patients and in cell models of prostate cancer exposed to clinically relevant antiandrogens. UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 protein levels in prostate were increased after 5 months of ADTh when compared with specimens from untreated patients. UGT2B15 expression remained elevated for up to 12 months, but UGT2B17 returned to initial levels as soon as after 6 months. Several androgen receptor (AR) antagonists tested caused a dose- and time-dependent stimulation of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expression and androgen glucuronidation in prostate cancer cell lines. The role of AR in these regulatory events was confirmed using AR-deficient LNCaP cells, in which UGT2B attenuation reduced the antiproliferative effects of AR pharmacologic antagonists. Through this combination of clinical and functional investigations, our work revealed that ADTh stimulates a local androgen metabolism in prostate cells, establishing a foundation to evaluate the potential of UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 as drug targets and/or molecular markers for ADTh responsiveness and maintenance in prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 73(23); 6963–71. ©2013 AACR.