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Supplementary Figures from Single-Cell Profiling of CD8+ T Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Reveals a Continuous Spectrum of Differentiation and Clonal Hyperexpansion

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posted on 2023-07-05, 08:42 authored by Poonam N. Desai, Bofei Wang, Andre Fonseca, Pamella Borges, Fatima Zahra Jelloul, Patrick K. Reville, Eric Lee, Christopher Ly, Akshay Basi, Jessica Root, Natalia Baran, Sean M. Post, Qing Deng, Hanxiao Sun, Arif O. Harmanci, Jared K. Burks, Javier A. Gomez, Courtney D. DiNardo, Naval G. Daver, Gheath Alatrash, Marina Konopleva, Michael R. Green, Dinler A. Antunes, Andrew Futreal, Dapeng Hao, Hussein A. Abbas

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University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MD Anderson)

Ladies Leukemia League (LLL)

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Comprehensive investigation of CD8+ T cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is essential for developing immunotherapeutic strategies beyond immune checkpoint blockade. Herein, we performed single-cell RNA profiling of CD8+ T cells from 3 healthy bone marrow donors and 23 newly diagnosed (NewlyDx) and 8 relapsed/refractory (RelRef) patients with AML. Cells coexpressing canonical exhaustion markers formed a cluster constituting <1% of all CD8+ T cells. We identified two effector CD8+ T-cell subsets characterized by distinct cytokine and metabolic profiles that were differentially enriched in NewlyDx and RelRef patients. We refined a 25-gene CD8-derived signature correlating with therapy resistance, including genes associated with activation, chemoresistance, and terminal differentiation. Pseudotemporal trajectory analysis supported enrichment of a terminally differentiated state in CD8+ T cells with high CD8-derived signature expression at relapse or refractory disease. Higher expression of the 25-gene CD8 AML signature correlated with poorer outcomes in previously untreated patients with AML, suggesting that the bona fide state of CD8+ T cells and their degree of differentiation are clinically relevant. Immune clonotype tracking revealed more phenotypic transitions in CD8 clonotypes in NewlyDx than in RelRef patients. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells from RelRef patients had a higher degree of clonal hyperexpansion associated with terminal differentiation and higher CD8-derived signature expression. Clonotype-derived antigen prediction revealed that most previously unreported clonotypes were patient-specific, suggesting significant heterogeneity in AML immunogenicity. Thus, immunologic reconstitution in AML is likely to be most successful at earlier disease stages when CD8+ T cells are less differentiated and have greater capacity for clonotype transitions.

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