ARTICLE ABSTRACTChronic microbial infection influences cancer progression, but the mechanisms that link them remain unclear. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates enzymes involved in endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism. CAR activation is a mechanism of xenobiotic tumor promotion; however, the effects of chronic microbial infection on tumor promotion have not been studied in the context of CAR function. Here, we report that CAR limits the effects of chronic infection–associated progression of liver cancer. CAR knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice were treated with or without the tumor initiator diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at 5 weeks of age and then orally inoculated with Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) or sterile media at 8 weeks of age. At approximately 50 weeks postinoculation, mice were euthanized for histopathologic, microbiological, molecular, and metabolomic analyses. Hh infection induced comparable hepatitis in WT and KO mice with or without DEN that correlated with significant upregulation of Tnfα and toll receptor Tlr2. Notably, DEN-treated Hh-infected KO mice exhibited increased numbers of liver lobes with dysplasia and neoplasia and increased multiplicity of neoplasia, relative to similarly treated WT mice. Enhanced tumor promotion was associated with decreased hepatic expression of P450 enzymes Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11, increased expression of Camp, and increased serum concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid. Together, our findings suggest that liver tumor promotion is enhanced by an impaired metabolic detoxification of endobiotics and a persistent microbial-induced immune response. Cancer Res; 71(7); 2529–40. ©2011 AACR.