American Association for Cancer Research
Browse
00085472can050858-sup-supplementary_figures_1_and_3.pdf (146.15 kB)

Supplementary Figures 1 and 3 from Conditional Expression of the CTCF-Paralogous Transcriptional Factor BORIS in Normal Cells Results in Demethylation and Derepression of MAGE-A1 and Reactivation of Other Cancer-Testis Genes

Download (146.15 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-30, 16:45 authored by Sergei Vatolin, Ziedulla Abdullaev, Svetlana D. Pack, Patrick T. Flanagan, Mary Custer, Dmitri I. Loukinov, Elena Pugacheva, Julie A. Hong, Herbert Morse, David S. Schrump, John I. Risinger, J. Carl Barrett, Victor V. Lobanenkov
Supplementary Figures 1 and 3 from Conditional Expression of the CTCF-Paralogous Transcriptional Factor BORIS in Normal Cells Results in Demethylation and Derepression of MAGE-A1 and Reactivation of Other Cancer-Testis Genes

History

ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS) is a mammalian CTCF paralog with the same central 11Zn fingers (11ZF) that mediate specific interactions with varying ∼50-bp target sites. Regulated in vivo occupancy of such sites may yield structurally and functionally distinct CTCF/DNA complexes involved in various aspects of gene regulation, including epigenetic control of gene imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. The latter functions are mediated by meCpG-sensitive 11ZF binding. Because CTCF is normally present in all somatic cells, whereas BORIS is active only in CTCF- and 5-methylcytosine–deficient adult male germ cells, switching DNA occupancy from CTCF to BORIS was suggested to regulate site specificity and timing of epigenetic reprogramming. In addition to 11ZF-binding paternal imprinting control regions, cancer-testis gene promoters also undergo remethylation during CTCF/BORIS switching in germ cells. Only promoters of cancer testis genes are normally silenced in all somatic cells but activated during spermatogenesis when demethylated in BORIS-positive germ cells and are found aberrantly derepressed in various tumors. We show here that BORIS is also expressed in multiple cancers and is thus itself a cancer-testis gene and that conditional expression of BORIS in normal fibroblasts activates cancer-testis genes selectively. We tested if replacement of CTCF by BORIS on regulatory DNA occurs in vivo on activation of a prototype cancer-testis gene, MAGE-A1. Transition from a hypermethylated/silenced to a hypomethylated/activated status induced in normal cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) was mimicked by conditional input of BORIS and is associated with complete switching from CTCF to BORIS occupancy at a single 11ZF target. This site manifested a novel type of CTCF/BORIS 11ZF binding insensitive to CpG methylation. Whereas 5-azadC induction of BORIS takes only few hours, derepression of MAGE-A1 occurred 1 to 2 days later, suggesting that BORIS mediates cancer-testis gene activation by 5-azadC. Indeed, infection of normal fibroblasts with anti-BORIS short hairpin RNA retroviruses before treatment with 5-azadC blocked reactivation of MAGE-A1. We suggest that BORIS is likely tethering epigenetic machinery to a novel class of CTCF/BORIS 11ZF target sequences that mediate induction of cancer-testis genes.

Usage metrics

    Cancer Research

    Categories

    Keywords

    Licence

    Exports

    RefWorks
    BibTeX
    Ref. manager
    Endnote
    DataCite
    NLM
    DC