Supplementary Figures 1-6 from Phenylarsine Oxide Induces Apoptosis in Bax- and Bak-Deficient Cells through Upregulation of Bim
ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: Bax and Bak are regarded as key mediators for cytochrome c (Cyt c) release and apoptosis. Loss of Bax or Bak is often reported in human cancers and renders resistance of these cancerous cells to chemotherapy. Here, we investigated that phenylarsine oxide (PAO) could induce Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis.Experimental Design: Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and caspase activation assays were conducted to detect apoptosis in Bax/Bak-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and HCT116 bax−/− colorectal cancer cells. Cyt c release and Bim expression were assessed by Western blotting and immunostaining. Bim was stably knocked down by short hairpin RNA. Immunoprecipitation was applied to detect the interaction between Bim and Bcl-2. Both subcutaneous and colorectal orthotopic tumor implantation models were used in nude mice to investigate the effect of PAO in vivo.Results: PAO triggered Cyt c release and apoptosis in a Bax/Bak-independent manner. Bim and Bcl-2 were both involved in this process. PAO augmented the expression of Bim and strengthened the interaction between Bim and Bcl-2. Furthermore, PAO attenuated the growth of Bax-deficient cancer cells in vivo.Conclusions: Our results showed that PAO induced apoptosis in chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells, which suggests that PAO has the potential to serve as a chemotherapeutic agent for Bax- and Bak-deficient cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 18(1); 140–51. ©2011 AACR.