American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figures 1-10 from Metastatic Cells Can Escape the Proapoptotic Effects of TNF-α through Increased Autocrine IL-6/STAT3 Signaling

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-30, 21:12 authored by Shun Li, Ni Wang, Pnina Brodt

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The liver is a common site for cancer metastases in which the entrance of tumor cells has been shown to trigger a rapid inflammatory response. In considering how an inflammatory response may affect metastatic colonization in this setting, we hypothesized that tumor cells may acquire resistance to the proapoptotic and tumoricidal effects of TNF-α, a cytokine that is elevated in a proinflammatory tissue microenvironment. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms by which such resistance may emerge using tumor cells in which the overexpression of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) enhanced the inflammatory and metastatic capacities of poorly metastatic cells in the liver. Mechanistic investigations in vitro revealed that IGF-IR overexpression increased cell survival in the presence of high levels of TNF-α, in a manner associated with increased autocrine production of interleukin-6 (IL)-6. In turn, tumor cell–derived IL-6 induced gp130 and IL-6R–dependent activation of STAT3, leading to reduced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. We found that IL-6 production and cell death resistance were dose dependent with increasing TNF-α levels. In addition, RNA interference–mediated knockdown of either IL-6 or gp130 that established a blockade to autocrine STAT3 induction was sufficient to abolish the prosurvival effect of TNF-α and to inhibit liver metastasis. Taken together, our findings define an IGF-IR–mediated mechanism of cancer cell survival that is critical for metastatic colonization of the liver. Cancer Res; 72(4); 865–75. ©2011 AACR.