American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure legends from Novel Mechanism of Macrophage-Mediated Metastasis Revealed in a Zebrafish Model of Tumor Development

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-30, 23:31 authored by Jian Wang, Ziquan Cao, Xing-Mei Zhang, Masaki Nakamura, Meili Sun, Johan Hartman, Robert A. Harris, Yuping Sun, Yihai Cao

Supplementary Figure legends



Cancer metastasis can occur at early stages of tumor development due to facilitative alterations in the tumor microenvironment. Although imaging techniques have considerably improved our understanding of metastasis, early events remain challenging to study due to the small numbers of malignant cells involved that are often undetectable. Using a novel zebrafish model to investigate this process, we discovered that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) acted to facilitate metastasis by binding tumor cells and mediating their intravasation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that IL6 and TNFα promoted the ability of macrophages to mediate this step. M2 macrophages were particularly potent when induced by IL4, IL10, and TGFβ. In contrast, IFNγ-lipopolysaccharide–induced M1 macrophages lacked the capability to function in the same way in the model. Confirming these observations, we found that human TAM isolated from primary breast, lung, colorectal, and endometrial cancers exhibited a similar capability in invasion and metastasis. Taken together, our work shows how zebrafish can be used to study how host contributions can facilitate metastasis at its earliest stages, and they reveal a new macrophage-dependent mechanism of metastasis with possible prognostic implications. Cancer Res; 75(2); 306–15. ©2014 AACR.