Supplementary Figure from Tumor-Naïve Multimodal Profiling of Circulating Tumor DNA in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
ARTICLE ABSTRACTCirculating tumor DNA (ctDNA) enables personalized treatment strategies in oncology by providing a noninvasive source of clinical biomarkers. In patients with low ctDNA abundance, tumor-naïve methods are needed to facilitate clinical implementation. Here, using locoregionally confined head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as an example, we demonstrate tumor-naïve detection of ctDNA by simultaneous profiling of mutations and methylation.
We conducted CAncer Personalized Profiling by deep Sequencing (CAPP-seq) and cell-free Methylated DNA ImmunoPrecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (cfMeDIP-seq) for detection of ctDNA-derived somatic mutations and aberrant methylation, respectively. We analyzed 77 plasma samples from 30 patients with stage I–IVA human papillomavirus–negative HNSCC as well as plasma samples from 20 risk-matched healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed leukocytes from patients and controls.
CAPP-seq identified mutations in 20 of 30 patients at frequencies similar to that of The Tumor Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential methylation analysis of cfMeDIP-seq profiles identified 941 ctDNA-derived hypermethylated regions enriched for CpG islands and HNSCC-specific methylation patterns. Both methods demonstrated an association between ctDNA abundance and shorter fragment lengths. In addition, mutation- and methylation-based ctDNA abundance was highly correlated (r > 0.85). Patients with detectable pretreatment ctDNA by both methods demonstrated significantly worse overall survival (HR = 7.5; P = 0.025) independent of clinical stage, with lack of ctDNA clearance post-treatment strongly correlating with recurrence. We further leveraged cfMeDIP-seq profiles to validate a prognostic signature identified from TCGA samples.
Tumor-naïve detection of ctDNA by multimodal profiling may facilitate biomarker discovery and clinical use in low ctDNA abundance applications.