American Association for Cancer Research
10780432ccr184144-sup-214040_2_supp_5413736_pqpqys.pdf (11.47 MB)

Supplementary Figure from PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway Alterations Promote Malignant Progression and Xenograft Formation in Oligodendroglial Tumors

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-31, 21:09 authored by Kensuke Tateishi, Taishi Nakamura, Tareq A. Juratli, Erik A. Williams, Yuko Matsushita, Shigeta Miyake, Mayuko Nishi, Julie J. Miller, Shilpa S. Tummala, Alexandria L. Fink, Nina Lelic, Mara V.A. Koerner, Yohei Miyake, Jo Sasame, Kenji Fujimoto, Takahiro Tanaka, Ryogo Minamimoto, Shigeo Matsunaga, Shigeo Mukaihara, Takashi Shuto, Hiroki Taguchi, Naoko Udaka, Hidetoshi Murata, Akihide Ryo, Shoji Yamanaka, William T. Curry, Dora Dias-Santagata, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Koichi Ichimura, Tracy T. Batchelor, Andrew S. Chi, A. John Iafrate, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Daniel P. Cahill

Supplementary Figure 1. A, Hematoxylin and eosin, Ki-67, and IDH1R132H staining in each specimen. B, Sanger sequencing, immunohistochemical analysis, pyrosequencing, and FISH to identify YMG6 tumors as oligodendroglial tumors. C, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification assay demonstrating chromosome 1p and 19q co-deletion in YMG6R3F (left) and YMG6R3T (right). Bars, 50 �m. Supplementary Figure 2. A, DNA fingerprinting showing matched DNA identification in YMG6R3F (upper), YMG6R3T (middle), and YMG6R3T xenograft (YMG6R3Tsc1, lower). Supplementary Figure 3. Sanger sequencing indicating MSH6Ala1293Ser (left, arrow) and STK11Pro281Leu (right, arrow) in YMG6I. B, Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating MSH6 expression in YMG6I (left) and YMG6R4T (right). C, Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating LKB1/STK11 expression in YMG6I (left) and YMG23 (right, positive control). D, Sanger sequencing indicating MSH6Gly409Glu (arrow) in YMG6R4T. E, F, Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (E) and colonoscopy (F) demonstrating no abnormal lesion in YMG6 patient. G, FDG-PET indicating no abnormal uptake in YMG6 patient. Bars, 50 �m. Supplementary Figure 4. Microsatellite instability (MSI)-PCR indicating microsatellite stable (MSS) in YMG6R2 and YMG6R3T. MSI-H, microsatellite instability high. MSS, microsatellite stable. Supplementary Figure 5. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating ATRX expression and weak expression of p53 in YMG6R3T. Supplementary Figure 6. Pyrosequencing indicating PIK3CAE542K (arrows) in YMG6I and YMG6R3T. B, Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating phospho-AKT, -4EBP1, and -S6K expression in YMG6I and YMG6R1. Supplementary Figure 7. A, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification assay indicating 1p and 19q co-deletion in YMG6R3Tsc1. B, Sanger sequencing showing mutation in IDH1 (arrow; c.395G>A, left) and TERT (arrow; c.-124C>T, right) of YMG6R4Tsc1. Supplementary Figure 8. A, Overview and microscopic view of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, upper), Ki-67 (middle) and IDH1R132H (lower) in first (YMG6R3Tsc1, left), second (YMG6R3Tsc2, middle), and third (YMG6R3Tsc3, right) generation YMG6R3T xenograft. B, H&E (upper), Ki-67 (middle), and IDH1R132H (lower) in YMG6R4Tsc1 (left), YMG6R4Tsc2 (middle), and YMG6R4Tsc3 (right). C, Sanger sequencing showing mutation of IDH1 (arrows, c.395G>A, left) and TERT (arrows, c.-124C>T, right), and PIK3CA (arrows, c.1624G>A) in YMG6R3Tsc2 (upper), YMG6R4Tsc2 (middle), and YMG6R4Tsc3 (lower). D, Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating strong expression of phospho-AKT (Ser473, left), phospho-4EBP1 (middle), and phospho-S6K (right) in YMG6R4Tsc3. Bars, 50 �m. Supplementary Figure 9. A, Upper, Sanger sequencing showing IDH1 mutation (arrow, c.395 G>A), TERT (arrow, c.-124C>T), and PIK3CA (arrow, c.3140A>G) in YMG23. Lower, MLPA demonstrating chromosome 1p/19q co-deletion and CDKN2A (chr.9p.21) loss in YMG23 patient tumor. B, Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating negative expression of p16INK4a/CDKN2A in YMG23 (upper). YMG5 (CDKN2A intact) served as positive control. C, Sanger sequencing showing mutations of IDH1 (arrow, c.395G>A, R132H, left) and TERT (arrow, c.-124C>T) in YMG5. D, Sanger sequencing showing mutations of IDH1 (arrow, c.395G>A), TERT (arrow, c.-124C>T), and PIK3CA (arrow, c.3140A>G) in YMG23sc1. E, MLPA demonstrating chromosome 1p/19q co-deletion and CDKN2A loss (chr.9p.21) in YMG23sc1. F, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating negative expression of p16INK4a/CDKN2A in YMG23sc1. Bars, 50 �m. Supplementary Figure 10. A, B, C, Sanger sequencing showing IDH1 mutation (arrows, c.395G>A, R132H, left) and TERT promoter mutation (c.-124C>T, C228T or c.-146C>T, C250T), and in YMG46 (A), YMG28 (B) and YMG53 (C). PIK3CA mutation (c.1406A>G, E542G, arrow, A, right) in YMG46. D, Contrast enhancing MRI showing non-enhanced tumor recurrence at right frontal lobe (left). H&E (upper) and IDH1R132H staining (lower) in YMG53 (AOD, middle). Overview of H&E staining indicating no xenograft formation in YMG53sc1 (right). Bars, 50 �m. Supplementary Figure 11. A, Overview and magnification of hematoxylin and eosin staining of second passaged YMG23 xenograft model (YMG23sc2). B, C, Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating expression of IDHR132H (B, left), Ki-67 (B, right), phospho-AKT (C, left), phospho-4EBP1 (C, middle), and phospho-S6K (C, right) in YMG23sc2. D, Sanger sequencing showing mutations in IDH1 (arrow, c.395 G>A), TERT (arrow, c.-124C>T), and PIK3CA (arrow, c.3140A>G) in YMG23sc2. Bars, 50 �m. Supplementary Figure 12. (A-D) Contrast enhanced MRI of the indicated patients at pre-treatment (left) and post-chemotherapy with/without radiotherapy (right). Supplementary Figure 13. Kaplan Meier Curve indicating no survival difference (P = 0.9) of overall survival in PIK3CA/PIK3RI- mutant (blue) and -wild-type (red) oligodendroglial tumor patients. Supplementary Figure 14. A, Relative cell viability of YMG28 (left) and YMG46 (right) cells after 3-day treatment with FK866 combined with DMSO control (blue bars) or TMZ (200 �M, purple bars). *, P<0.05 for difference DMSO and FK866. **, P<0.05 for difference DMSO and FK866 plus TMZ. B, Relative cell viability of YMG28 (blue) and YMG46 (red) cells after 9-day treatment with AGI-5198.


Grant-Aid for Scientific Research C

Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund

Takeda Science Foundation

Yasuda Medical Foundation

Japanese Foundation for Multidisciplinary Treatment of Cancer

Yokohama Foundation for Advanced Medical Science


Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation





Oligodendroglioma has a relatively favorable prognosis, however, often undergoes malignant progression. We hypothesized that preclinical models of oligodendroglioma could facilitate identification of therapeutic targets in progressive oligodendroglioma. We established multiple oligodendroglioma xenografts to determine if the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway drives tumor progression. Two anatomically distinct tumor samples from a patient who developed progressive anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AOD) were collected for orthotopic transplantation in mice. We additionally implanted 13 tumors to investigate the relationship between PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations and oligodendroglioma xenograft formation. Pharmacologic vulnerabilities were tested in newly developed AOD models in vitro and in vivo. A specimen from the tumor site that subsequently manifested rapid clinical progression contained a PIK3CA mutation E542K, and yielded propagating xenografts that retained the OD/AOD-defining genomic alterations (IDH1R132H and 1p/19q codeletion) and PIK3CAE542K, and displayed characteristic sensitivity to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. In contrast, a xenograft did not engraft from the region that was clinically stable and had wild-type PIK3CA. In our panel of OD/AOD xenografts, the presence of activating mutations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was consistently associated with xenograft establishment (6/6, 100%). OD/AOD that failed to generate xenografts did not have activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR alterations (0/9, P < 0.0001). Importantly, mutant PIK3CA oligodendroglioma xenografts were vulnerable to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in vitro and in vivo—evidence that mutant PIK3CA is a tumorigenic driver in oligodendroglioma. Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an oncogenic driver and is associated with xenograft formation in oligodendrogliomas. These findings have implications for therapeutic targeting of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in progressive oligodendrogliomas.