Supplementary Figure from Acetylated HOXB13 Regulated Super Enhancer Genes Define Therapeutic Vulnerabilities of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
ARTICLE ABSTRACTAndrogen receptor (AR) antagonism is exacerbated by HOXB13 in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC). However, it is unclear when and how HOXB13 primes CRPCs for AR antagonism. By mass-spectrometry analysis of CRPC extract, we uncovered a novel lysine 13 (K13) acetylation in HOXB13 mediated by CBP/p300. To determine whether acetylated K13-HOXB13 is a clinical biomarker of CRPC development, we characterized its role in prostate cancer biology.
We identified tumor-specific acK13-HOXB13 signal enriched super enhancer (SE)-regulated targets. We analyzed the effect of loss of HOXB13K13-acetylation on chromatin binding, SE proximal target gene expression, self-renewal, enzalutamide sensitivity, and CRPC tumor growth by employing isogenic parental and HOXB13K13A mutants. Finally, using primary human prostate organoids, we evaluated whether inhibiting an acK13-HOXB13 target, ACK1, with a selective inhibitor (R)-9b is superior to AR antagonists in inhibiting CRPC growth.
acK13-HOXB13 promotes increased expression of lineage (AR, HOXB13), prostate cancer diagnostic (FOLH1), CRPC-promoting (ACK1), and angiogenesis (VEGFA, Angiopoietins) genes early in prostate cancer development by establishing tumor-specific SEs. acK13-HOXB13 recruitment to key SE-regulated targets is insensitive to enzalutamide. ACK1 expression is significantly reduced in the loss of function HOXB13K13A mutant CRPCs. Consequently, HOXB13K13A mutants display reduced self-renewal, increased sensitivity to enzalutamide, and impaired xenograft tumor growth. Primary human prostate tumor organoids expressing HOXB13 are significantly resistant to AR antagonists but sensitive to (R)-9b.
In summary, acetylated HOXB13 is a biomarker of clinically significant prostate cancer. Importantly, PSMA-targeting agents and (R)-9b could be new therapeutic modalities to target HOXB13–ACK1 axis regulated prostate cancers.