Individual MLAST curves and biomarker staining from G12C KP animals treated with vehicle, Compound A, and sotorasib
ARTICLE ABSTRACTKRAS is one of the most commonly mutated oncogenes in lung, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. Recent clinical trials directly targeting KRAS G12C presented encouraging results for a large population of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but resistance to treatment is a concern. Continued exploration of new inhibitors and preclinical models is needed to address resistance mechanisms and improve duration of patient responses. To further enable the development of KRAS G12C inhibitors, we present a preclinical framework involving translational, non-invasive imaging modalities (CT and PET) and histopathology in a conventional xenograft model and a novel KRAS G12C knock-in mouse model of NSCLC. We utilized an in-house developed KRAS G12C inhibitor (Compound A) as a tool to demonstrate the value of this framework in studying in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship and anti-tumor efficacy. We characterized the Kras G12C-driven genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) and identify tumor growth and signaling differences compared to its Kras G12D-driven counterpart. We also find that Compound A has comparable efficacy to sotorasib in the Kras G12C-driven lung tumors arising in the GEMM, but like observations in the clinic, some tumors inevitably progress on treatment. These findings establish a foundation for evaluating future KRAS G12C inhibitors that is not limited to xenograft studies and can be applied in a translationally relevant mouse model that mirrors human disease progression and resistance.