ARTICLE ABSTRACTAn increasing number of cancer epidemiology studies use metabolomics assays. This scoping review characterizes trends in the literature in terms of study design, population characteristics, and metabolomics approaches and identifies opportunities for future growth and improvement. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science: Core Collection databases and included research articles that used metabolomics to primarily study cancer, contained a minimum of 100 cases in each main analysis stratum, used an epidemiologic study design, and were published in English from 1998 to June 2021. A total of 2,048 articles were screened, of which 314 full texts were further assessed resulting in 77 included articles. The most well-studied cancers were colorectal (19.5%), prostate (19.5%), and breast (19.5%). Most studies used a nested case–control design to estimate associations between individual metabolites and cancer risk and a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry untargeted or semi-targeted approach to measure metabolites in blood. Studies were geographically diverse, including countries in Asia, Europe, and North America; 27.3% of studies reported on participant race, the majority reporting White participants. Most studies (70.2%) included fewer than 300 cancer cases in their main analysis. This scoping review identified key areas for improvement, including needs for standardized race and ethnicity reporting, more diverse study populations, and larger studies.