American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure S3 from Upregulation of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 in Tumor Cells and Tertiary Lymphoid Structures is a Hallmark of Inflamed Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-12-01, 08:44 authored by Alban Bessede, Florent Peyraud, Sylvestre Le Moulec, Sophie Cousin, Mathilde Cabart, François Chomy, Christophe Rey, Oren Lara, Ophélie Odin, Imane Nafia, Jean-Philippe Guegan, Antoine Italiano

Kaplan Meier curves of the progression-free survival of patients classified as High or Low according to their tumor CD163+ cell infiltration (A), stromal CD8+ cell infiltration (B) or tumor PDL1 expression (C).





Overexpression of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) has been reported in several tumor types, including non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and has been shown to promote tumor-immune evasion and inhibit T-cell activation through increased tryptophan degradation and the production of several immunosuppressive metabolites collectively known as kynurenines. However, it remains unclear whether IDO1 expression by tumor cells is detrimental specifically in the context of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis blockade. We analyzed the transcriptome of 891 NSCLC tumor samples from patients enrolled in two large randomized clinical trials investigating the safety and activity of atezolizumab, a humanized IgG1 mAb that targets PD-L1, versus docetaxel in patients with advanced NSCLC. We complemented these transcriptomics results at the protein level by using multiplex immunofluorescence and at the functional level with in vitro experiments. The increased expression of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme IDO1 was significantly associated with improved objective response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients treated with PD-L1 inhibitors, but not in those treated with chemotherapy. Strikingly, inflamed tumors had higher levels of IDO1, and IDO1 was also expressed in tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) by mature follicular dendritic cells. L-kynurenine impaired the differentiation of antibody-producing B cells induced by follicular helper T (Tfh)/B-cell interactions, a hallmark process within TLS. IDO1 pathway in NSCLC is driven by the immune system rather than by tumor cells. Targeting IDO1 in combination with anti–PD-1/PD-L1 might be beneficial only in patients with inflamed tumors and particularly in those bearing TLS.

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