American Association for Cancer Research
10780432ccr140542-sup-127647_2_supp_2580489_n98t0t.docx (121.56 kB)

Supplementary Figure S3 from Deoxycytidine Kinase Expression Underpins Response to Gemcitabine in Bladder Cancer

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-31, 19:10 authored by Martin Kerr, Helen E. Scott, Blaz Groselj, Michael R.L. Stratford, Katalin Karaszi, Naomi L. Sharma, Anne E. Kiltie

Supplementary Figure S3. Inverse correlation between S phase accumulation of cells and gemcitabine IC50. Cells were treated with 10 nM gemcitabine for 24 h, prior to fixation in 70% ethanol and staining with propidium iodide. The proportion of cells in S phase was calculated using ModFit LT (Verity Software House).



Purpose: In a recent phase II clinical trial, low-dose (100 mg/m2) gemcitabine showed promise as a radiosensitizer in bladder cancer, but underlying mechanisms lack elucidation. Here, we investigated the mechanism of radiosensitization by low-dose gemcitabine in bladder cancer cell lines.Experimental Design: Four bladder cancer cell lines were screened for radiosensitization by low-dose gemcitabine using clonogenic assay, and gemcitabine-resistant RT112gem and CALgem cells created by exposure to increasing gemcitabine doses. Four key gemcitabine-regulatory genes were knocked down by transient siRNA. Nude mice carrying CALgem subcutaneous xenografts were exposed to 100 mg/kg gemcitabine ± ionizing radiation (IR) and response assessed by tumor growth delay.Results: Gemcitabine was cytotoxic in the low nanomolar range (10–40 nmol/L) in four bladder cancer cell lines and radiosensitized all four lines. Sensitizer enhancement ratios at 10% survival were: RT112 1.42, CAL29 1.55, T24 1.63, and VMCUB1 1.47. Transient siRNA knockdown of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) significantly reduced radiosensitization by gemcitabine (P = 0.02). RT112gem and CALgem cells displayed robust decreases of dCK mRNA and protein levels; reexpression of dCK restored gemcitabine sensitivity. However, CALgem xenografts responded better to combination gemcitabine/IR than either treatment alone (P < 0.001) with dCK strongly expressed in the tumor vasculature and stroma.Conclusions: Gemcitabine resistance in bladder cancer cell lines was associated with decreased dCK expression, but gemcitabine-resistant xenografts were responsive to combination low-dose gemcitabine/IR. We propose that dCK activity in tumor vasculature renders it gemcitabine sensitive, which is sufficient to invoke a tumor response and permit tumor cell kill in gemcitabine-resistant tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 20(21); 5435–45. ©2014 AACR.