American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure S2 from The Impact of Germline Alterations in Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-06-08, 13:20 authored by Michael B. Foote, Henry Walch, Yelena Kemel, Efsevia Vakiani, Paul Johannet, Margaret Sheehan, Walid Chatila, Sebastian Chung, Garrett M. Nash, Anna Maio, Jinru Shia, Diana Mandelker, Michael Berger, Nikolaus Schultz, Luis A. Diaz, Andrea Cercek, Zsofia K. Stadler

Appendix cancer specific survival in patients with stage IV appendiceal adenocarcinoma stratified by presence of a germline variant in CHEK2 (n=3) or BRCA1(n=1) associated with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). Patients with germline variants in non-HRD-associated genes were not included in the analysis. Highlighted Kaplan Meier curve areas display the 95% confidence interval for the respective survival curves.



More than 10% of assessed patients with appendiceal adenocarcinoma have a pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) germline variant, including genes implicated in heritable gastrointestinal cancer syndromes, such as Lynch syndrome. We defined the clinical and molecular impact of heritable alterations in appendiceal adenocarcinoma to evaluate the need for dedicated appendiceal screening and prevention strategies in patients with LP/P germline variants. We performed an integrated germline and somatic molecular analysis for patients with confirmed appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Patients underwent paired tumor-normal sequencing for up to 90 hereditary cancer risk genes and 505 genes for somatic mutation profiling. We defined the cooccurrence of LP/P germline variants and second-hit pathogenic somatic alterations. The associations between germline variants and patient clinicopathologic features were also evaluated. Twenty-five of 237 patients (10.5%) carried pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in cancer susceptibility genes. Clinicopathologic characteristics and appendiceal adenocarcinoma–specific survival were similar in patients with or without germline variants. Most (92%, N = 23/25) patients with germline variants demonstrated no second-hit somatic alterations, including loss of heterozygosity. Two patients with a germline APC I1307K low-penetrance founder variant exhibited secondary somatic pathogenic alterations in APC. However, only one patient tumor exhibited APC-mediated WNT signaling dysregulation: a plausible consequence of multiple somatic APC mutations with no germline variant contribution. Four patients had germline variants in PMS2 or MSH2 associated with Lynch syndrome, yet their cancers were microsatellite-stable. Germline variants are likely incidental without a contributory driver role in appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Appendiceal adenocarcinoma screening in patients with germline variants is not clearly merited.

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