American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure S2 from RANK Signaling Blockade Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrence by Inducing Tumor Cell Differentiation

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-03-30, 23:40 authored by Guillermo Yoldi, Pasquale Pellegrini, Eva M. Trinidad, Alex Cordero, Jorge Gomez-Miragaya, Jordi Serra-Musach, William C. Dougall, Purificación Muñoz, Miguel-Angel Pujana, Lourdes Planelles, Eva González-Suárez

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RANK expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer even though its therapeutic potential remains unknown. RANKL and its receptor RANK are downstream effectors of the progesterone signaling pathway. However, RANK expression is enriched in hormone receptor negative adenocarcinomas, suggesting additional roles for RANK signaling beyond its hormone-dependent function. Here, to explore the role of RANK signaling once tumors have developed, we use the mouse mammary tumor virus-Polyoma Middle T (MMTV-PyMT), which mimics RANK and RANKL expression patterns seen in human breast adenocarcinomas. Complementary genetic and pharmacologic approaches demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of RANK signaling drastically reduces the cancer stem cell pool, decreases tumor and metastasis initiation, and enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy. Mechanistically, genome-wide expression analyses show that anti-RANKL therapy promotes lactogenic differentiation of tumor cells. Moreover, RANK signaling in tumor cells negatively regulates the expression of Ap2 transcription factors, and enhances the Wnt agonist Rspo1 and the Sca1-population, enriched in tumor-initiating cells. In addition, we found that expression of TFAP2B and the RANK inhibitor, OPG, in human breast cancer correlate and are associated with relapse-free tumors. These results support the use of RANKL inhibitors to reduce recurrence and metastasis in breast cancer patients based on its ability to induce tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5857–69. ©2016 AACR.