American Association for Cancer Research
ccr-22-2998_supplementary_figure_s2_suppfs2.pdf (117.46 kB)

Supplementary Figure S2 from Early On-treatment Changes in Circulating Tumor DNA Fraction and Response to Enzalutamide or Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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posted on 2023-04-18, 13:20 authored by Sofie H. Tolmeijer, Emmy Boerrigter, Takayuki Sumiyoshi, Edmond M. Kwan, Sarah W.S. Ng, Matti Annala, Gráinne Donnellan, Cameron Herberts, Guillemette E. Benoist, Paul Hamberg, Diederik M. Somford, Inge M. van Oort, Jack A. Schalken, Niven Mehra, Nielka P. van Erp, Alexander W. Wyatt

On-treatment ctDNA fraction, PSA and LDH changes and durability of treatment response



Androgen receptor pathway inhibitors (ARPI) are standard of care for treatment-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but rapid resistance is common. Early identification of resistance will improve management strategies. We investigated whether changes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fraction during ARPI treatment are linked with mCRPC clinical outcomes. Plasma cell-free DNA was collected from 81 patients with mCRPC at baseline and after 4 weeks of first-line ARPI treatment during two prospective multicenter observational studies (NCT02426333; NCT02471469). ctDNA fraction was calculated from somatic mutations in targeted sequencing and genome copy-number profiles. Samples were classified into detected versus undetected ctDNA. Outcome measurements were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Nondurable treatment response was defined as PFS ≤6 months. ctDNA was detected in 48/81 (59%) baseline and 29/81 (36%) 4-week samples. ctDNA fraction for samples with detected ctDNA was lower at 4 weeks versus baseline (median 5.0% versus 14.5%, P = 0.017). PFS and OS were shortest for patients with persistent ctDNA at 4 weeks (univariate HR, 4.79; 95% CI, 2.62–8.77 and univariate HR, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.76–10.91, respectively), independent of clinical prognostic factors. For patients exhibiting change from detected to undetected ctDNA by 4 weeks, there was no significant PFS difference versus patients with baseline undetected ctDNA. ctDNA change had a positive predictive value of 88% and negative predictive value of 92% for identifying nondurable responses. Early changes in ctDNA fraction are strongly linked to duration of first-line ARPI treatment benefit and survival in mCRPC and may inform early therapy switches or treatment intensification.

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