Figure S1 shows the gating strategy for PMN apoptosis analysis, RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and flow cytometry analyses of FPR2/ALX-transfected HEK cells, effect of NAP1051 on dTHP-1 cells with selective kinase inhibitors, and Western blot with normal HEK cells and FPR2/ALX-transfected HEK cells
ARTICLE ABSTRACTResolving tumor-associated inflammation in the tumor microenvironment (TME) may promote antitumor effects. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is a short-lived endogenous bioactive lipid with potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties. Here, a biomimetic of LXA4, NAP1051, was shown to have LXA4-like in vitro properties and antitumor activity in colorectal cancer xenograft models. NAP1051 inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis toward fMLP and dose-dependently promoted dTHP-1 efferocytosis which was equipotent to aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 (ATLA). In dTHP-1 cells, NAP1051 induced strong phosphorylation on ERK1/2 and AKT similar to formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) agonists. In two mouse xenograft colorectal cancer models, NAP1051 significantly inhibited tumor growth when given orally at 4.8 to 5 mg/kg/day. Flow cytometric analyses showed that NAP1051 reduced splenic and intratumoral neutrophil and myeloid-derived suppressor cell populations, which correlated to the antitumor effect. In addition, NAP1051 reduced NETosis in the TME while stimulating T-cell recruitment. Overall, these results show that NAP1051 possesses key lipoxin-like properties and has antitumor activity against colorectal cancer via modulation of neutrophils and NETosis in the TME.