American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure Legends from Redirecting Apoptosis to Aponecrosis Induces Selective Cytotoxicity to Pancreatic Cancer Cells through Increased ROS, Decline in ATP Levels, and VDAC

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-04-03, 13:50 authored by Richard D. Dinnen, Yuehua Mao, Wanglong Qiu, Nicholas Cassai, Vesna N. Slavkovich, Gwen Nichols, Gloria H. Su, Paul Brandt-Rauf, Robert L. Fine

PDF - 74KB, Legends to Supplementary Figures S1-S6.

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer cell lines with mutated ras underwent an alternative form of cell death (aponecrosis) when treated concomitantly with clinically achievable concentrations of arsenic trioxide, ascorbic acid, and disulfiram (Antabuse; AAA). AAA's major effects are mediated through generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and more than 50% decline in intracellular ATP. N-acetyl cysteine and a superoxide dismutase mimetic prevented aponecrosis and restored intracellular ATP levels. DIDS (4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2′ disulfonic acid), the pan- Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC), -1, 2, 3 inhibitor and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to VDAC-1 blocked cell death and ROS accumulation. In vivo exposure of AAA led to a 62% reduction in mean tumor size and eliminated tumors in 30% of nude mice with PANC-1 xenografts. We concluded that early caspase-independent apoptosis was shifted to VDAC-mediated “targeted” aponecrosis by the addition of disulfiram to arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid. Conceptually, this work represents a paradigm shift where switching from apoptosis to aponecrosis death pathways, also known as targeted aponecrosis, could be utilized to selectively kill pancreatic cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. Mol Cancer Ther; 12(12); 2792–803. ©2013 AACR.