ARTICLE ABSTRACTMelanoma often recurs after a latency period of several years, presenting a T cell–edited phenotype that reflects a role for CD8+ T cells in maintaining metastatic latency. Here, we report an investigation of a patient with multiple recurrent lesions, where poorly immunogenic melanoma phenotypes were found to evolve in the presence of autologous tumor antigen–specific CD8+ T cells. Melanoma cells from two of three late recurrent metastases, developing within a 6-year latency period, lacked HLA class I expression. CD8+ T cell–resistant, HLA class I–negative tumor cells became clinically apparent 1.5 and 6 years into stage IV disease. Genome profiling by SNP arrays revealed that HLA class I loss in both metastases originated from a shared chromosome 15q alteration and independently acquired focal B2M gene deletions. A third HLA class I haplotype-deficient lesion developed in year 3 of stage IV disease that acquired resistance toward dominant CD8+ T-cell clonotypes targeting stage III tumor cells. At an early stage, melanoma cells showed a dedifferentiated c-Junhigh/MITFlow phenotype, possibly associated with immunosuppression, which contrasted with a c-Junlow/MITFhigh phenotype of T cell–edited tumor cells derived from late metastases. In summary, our work shows how tumor recurrences after long-term latency evolve toward T-cell resistance by independent genetic events, as a means for immune escape and immunotherapeutic resistance. Cancer Res; 76(15); 4347–58. ©2016 AACR.