American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplementary Figure Legend from Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Promotes Malignant Pleural Effusion

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posted on 2023-03-30, 17:42 authored by Georgios T. Stathopoulos, Androniki Kollintza, Charalampos Moschos, Ioannis Psallidas, Taylor P. Sherrill, Emmanuel N. Pitsinos, Spyridoula Vassiliou, Marilena Karatza, Spyros A. Papiris, Daniel Graf, Dora Orphanidou, Richard W. Light, Charis Roussos, Timothy S. Blackwell, Ioannis Kalomenidis
Supplementary Figure Legend from Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Promotes Malignant Pleural Effusion



Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is present in the microenvironment of human tumors, including malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Although the cytokine is produced in the pleural cavity by both tumor and host cells, its effects on MPE formation are unknown. In these studies, we sought to determine the role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of MPE and to assess the therapeutic effects of its neutralization in a preclinical model. For this, MPEs were generated in immunocompetent mice using intrapleural injection of mouse lung adenocarcinoma cells. The roles of tumor- and host-derived TNF-α were assessed using combined experimentation with TNF-α gene–deficient mice and in vivo TNF-α neutralization. To expand the scope of preclinical data, TNF-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were determined in human cancer cell lines and human MPE. In the MPE model, TNF-α of host and tumor origin was present. TNF-α neutralization significantly limited tumor dissemination, effusion formation, vascular hyperpermeability, TNF-α and VEGF expression, and angiogenesis, thereby improving survival. In contrast, these variables were not different between TNF-α gene–sufficient and TNF-α gene–deficient mice. In mouse cancer cells, TNF-α functioned via nuclear factor-κB– and neutral sphingomyelinase–dependent pathways to induce TNF-α and VEGF, respectively. These results were recapitulated in human cancer cells, and a correlation was detected between TNF-α and VEGF content of human MPE. We conclude that tumor-derived TNF-α is important in the development of MPE in mice, and provide preclinical evidence supporting the efficacy of TNF-α blockade against malignant pleural disease. [Cancer Res 2007;67(20):9825–34]

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